Ceramics and glass are applied in a wide range of industrial applications, including metallurgical, chemical, mechanical, and energy production.
Ceramic materials, in general, are nonmetallic, inorganic materials, meaning they are not metals, plastics, or organic substances. Ceramic materials include oxides, nitrides, carbides, and borides, among other compounds. Glasses are amorphous materials that come in a variety of compositions. Most commercial glasses, on the other hand, are made of silicate or borosilicate-based materials.
Properties that make these materials appealing in these areas are Wear and corrosion resistance, hardness, chemical resistance, thermal and electrical insulation, and high-temperature resistance and compressive strength.
The most expensive and energy-intensive process in glass manufacturing is the melting and refining of raw materials to produce a homogeneous, contaminant-free molten bath, which is the basis of all glass products. Raw materials such as sand, limestone, soda ash, and cullet (scrap and recycled glass) must be fed into a furnace that maintains a temperature of 2,700°F to 3,100°F during the manufacturing process.
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